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Why Reading Fiction Develops Your Brain

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "reading"In her book, The Supplement of Reading, Tilottama RYour Brainajan explores the active role a reader plays in the reading of fiction. She claims that the reader’s role is to bridge the gap between the “conception and execution” of the text by supplying “a unity not present in the text”(p.2).

According to Rajan, the reader is not a passive recipient, but a supplement to the narrative; in fact, it is the reader, not the author, who creates meaning.

Recently, research on reading and the brain enhancement has validated Rajan’s claims. Brain studies of volunteers in the act of reading fiction show that the reader actively recreates and rewrites the narrative he reads by engaging his own memories and experiences in the process.

But this is not all. Other studies reveal that reading fiction develops your brain; it makes you smarter and more socially perceptive.

Reading Kafka Makes You Smarter

Because of the demands they make on a reader, the surprise elements in a Kafka story or a David Lynch movie enhance your intelligence.

This is the conclusion of a study conducted by psychologists at UC Santa Barbara and the University of British Columbia.

Volunteer subjects were asked to read a version of Kafka’s “The Country Doctor,” a story built on a series of bizarre and absurd events. A second group was asked to read a rewritten version of the same story in which the bizarre elements were explained in a way that made sense.

When both groups were tested later, people who read the original bizarre story scored higher in their ability to decipher hidden patterns, a sign that their brains had been enhanced by the difficulties they encountered while trying to find meaning in the Kafka text.

According to UBC researcher Travis Proulx, your brain is surprised by the unexpected and works its muscles to create order out of disorder. This is the exercise that enhances intelligence.

Reading Fiction Makes You Socially Perceptive

University of Toronto Professor Keith Oatley has studied the impact reading fiction has on the human brain. Because fiction is about “possible selves in possible worlds,” it helps you think and feel as others do.

Neuro-imaging studies show that when you recognize an emotion in a fictional character, the mirror neurons in your brain generate the same emotions. This mirroring of emotional response is the brain stimulation that makes you empathic and socially intelligent.

In one study, Oatley and his team assigned one group of participants to read a short story by Chekhov. The other group read a version of the story presented in a documentary format. When the participants were tested, Oatley discovered that the fiction readers experienced more dramatic changes in personality and perception than those who read the non-fiction version of the narrative.

From Oatley’s perspective, readers of the fictional narrative identified with the protagonists and this identification allowed them to “connect with something larger than themselves, beyond themselves.”

Reading Fiction is an Act of Metaphor

This ability to move beyond the self is the basis of metaphor, a word that means “to carry beyond.” The metaphor’s appearance in human language marked a new stage in man’s evolution.

During this period of transition 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, isolated knowledge domains broke out of their confinement and merged with other domains. According to Oatley, the domains of man’s brain structures “started to interpenetrate and metaphor was born.”

Art is an act of metaphor because it interpenetrates both literal and non-literal domains. By crossing boundaries, art challenges the reader or viewer with the element of surprise and the desire to create meaning out of it.

Because fiction is an art form, it encourages the reader not simply to receive meaning, but to create meaning from the text. For this reason, reading fiction develops your brain.

SEO and Black Hat SEO

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "seo"After looking at SEO and the benefits it can have, it’s a good idea to look at what can go wrong or badly with SEO. Bad Search engine optimising is called ‘black hat’ as opposed to correct and helpful – or ‘white hat’ SEO.

What is Black Hat SEO?

There isn’t ‘bad’ search engine optimisation per se; it’s more like bad practise in SEO. The black and white hat terminology comes from the way in which people and companies attempt to boost their website’s ranking.

White hat SEO attempts to work within the boundaries of the search engine, trying to guess what the engine likes and working from there to improve site rankings. This involves some trial and error, but for the most part is definitely what search engine providers prefer and tends to give positive, regular and reliable results.

Black hat search engine optimisation attempts to trick the search engine and artificially boost site rankings. Black hat users attempt to game the search engines, guessing at what the search engine’s algorithm is looking for numerically, mathematically and in terms of site code. Black hat seo will then try to subvert the way that the algorithm works to trick it into giving their site a higher ranking – this is one of the reasons search engine algorithms are kept secret.

An Example of Black Hat Search Engine Optimisation

To begin with one part of most algorithms was known to be ‘more keywords on the site = greater relevancy = higher up the listing’. However, this led to Black hat work whereby websites would overuse the word in a semi-invisible way.

Taking the word ‘computer’ as the keyword that a search engine is looking for you can see how this would work. The user types ‘computer’ into the search bar. As it stood, sites with more examples of the word ‘computer’ in their content would get to the top of the search results.

However black hat users would trick the search. Sites would have a black background and then write (in the smallest possible font) ‘computer’ in black font onto the background. This meant that while a user couldn’t see it, and would only see a black background, the search engine would find that the website had ‘computer’ written on it millions of times and would think it was highly relevant. This technique, however, has nothing to do with black hat link building.

Black Hat can have very negative results

Doing this today will get your website blacklisted and taken off most search engines, and the algorithms have been changed to see keywords as a part of the relevancy equation rather than the whole thing. So most sites will still contain a fair few keywords or phrases (about 7-8 on each page) but won’t overuse them.

All search engine providers are constantly working to improve the way that their engines work and to stop black hat work. So while black hat can be very effective, its success is often short lived.

Train Your Dogs By Buying The Best Shock Collars

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "shock collars"Today, more and more people are opting dogs as a pet because they safeguard your house and live with you as a friend.  They make your life more happening and make it fun and exciting. Along, with this there are many other duties that the dog performs. They are capable of doing a number of things because of which many dog owners are deciding to train them. Through training their pet will learn many new things which will be beneficial for their proper growth. In fact, for this purpose different types of tools and machines are available in the market.

These days, numbers of people are opting for shock collars. With the help of these collars, you can overcome their various behavioral problems and can teach them how to behave with others and can explain them to keep away from sharp objects and dangerous animals. Doing this, your pet will remain safe from any type of problem. There are a number of best shock collar  available in market that you can choose for your pet.

Tips to consider before buying shock collars

Along with benefits, there are a number of tips also that you must keep in mind while purchasing them. Through these tips you will easily get best collar:

  • Whatever collar you are selecting, it should have intensity adjustable option. These days’ collars are coming with beep option and vibration option you can select any one according to your choice. So, before buying it check the setting option carefully.
  • Always go for affordable collars, a huge variety of collars are available in the market whose price varies depending on their function. In case, you are tight at budget then you can go for one which will has less options as more options will charge you more.
  • Before using the collar on your dog, make sure that they do not have any type of fear. If they have any such fear, then it can be dangerous for them and can have a negative effect.

Mark Hurd Moving All Products to the Cloud

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "mark hurd"The cloud has quickly started to dominate the market in terms of storage for many reasons. The primary one of these is that it gives people a portable storage option where they store their pictures, presentations, music, and other files and simply connect to their cloud space where they can have instant access no matter where they are at in the world. As long as they can reach the internet they can get whatever they need.

This is why consumers see the need to use the cloud, but one organization is seeing the need to put all of their services on cloud and has been working on it since October. During the Mark Hurd keynote speech in October he explained how he would do just that.

Since becoming the chief executive officer of Oracle in 2010, Hurd has sought to lay out a vision that would turn the tech company into one of the leaders in the industry and in less than seven years he has done just that. It has been through innovative ideas that he has made Oracle a company that is ever expanding and is now worth over $37 billion.

Following in this pattern, Hurd is moving the services of Oracle to the cloud to make it easier for people and organizations to be able to gain access to their products. The move will allow consumers to be able to access the software without having to physically load the software onto your personal or company PC. This makes it so much more convenient because space is not taken on the computer and upgrades happen instantaneously.

Mark Hurd continues to make Oracle a leader in the tech world, and this is just one more way that he has helped to make the giant a true leader in the industry, and one that others are looking to emulate.

Tips on how to use facial hair epilator with a pain free process

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "epilator"The facial hair is a bang for the women as it gives their face a unmatched appearance. Women generally have hair in areas like chin, upper lips, below the ear etc. on their face. Using a razor would give them manly beard hair while using hair-removing cream can be harmful due to the chemicals to the eyes. Henceforth, epilator is the safest option for such difficulties.

With metallic tweezers on the plates, disc and spring, they very perfectly remove the hair from the roots and do not allow them to appear for nearly 2 months. There are women who use the facial hair epilator every 6 months. However, getting them from their roots is quite painful.

Here are few tips to remove then with less or zero pain.

  • Use of exfoliation process is quite beneficial before and after the use of epilator.
  • Make sure your skin is free from any kind of chemical so that the side effects are minimized. In case you have any doubt, wash your face clearly and dry it.
  • Check the prescription of the epilator before you use it. Some epilators are waterproof while some are not.
  • Hold the epilator in a parallel position. This would protect your skin to be pulled while using the epilator.
  • There are painkillers available that are mild. You can have them half an hour before you start with epilation.
  • Do not harshly use the epilator. Make a smooth and gentle move.

The use of epilator may result in some minor side effects on face like pimples and redness but they would vanish within few hairs for a clear skin. Some also face problems like in grown hair, which can also be cured with the kit that comes along with some epilators.

Chartered Surveyors And Their Services

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Chartered Surveyors"Foundation Surveyors was founded based on the need of high quality and affordable chartered surveyors services on the market. The company can offer valuation and survey information for any type of property, residential or commercial without being affiliated with any lender or real estate agency. The surveyors are highly trained based on professional standards and each one of them has a Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) certification. You can surely count on Foundation Surveyors advices and services because they offer them based on many years of experience. The company can act on behalf of an individual client and also on a joint basis, even if you are a leaseholder or a freeholder.


What do Foundation Surveyors have to offer?

Foundation Surveyors provides independently structured surveys for the clients that think about purchasing a new house. The surveys offer crucial information about the existent drawbacks of the purchase, untold and undiscovered things about the property and of course advices for how to deal with those unforeseen issues.


In the lease extension business, the company can work your case independently to obtain the best outcome despite the route you choose, statutory or informal. You will receive full explanations regarding the law and your rights and you will know everything that happens on each step of the way.


Financial Surveyors also provides independent accurate valuation information, as well as expertise and advice for disposal and acquisition and a sensitivity analysis.



Buying a new property or extending your lease is a very important step to take. It cannot be made without a specialist to guide you through. Building often have unseen or hidden problems and the contracts can have pitfalls. It is really necessary to ask for advice in this matter. If you know all the details, you can also arrive to an acceptable settlement.

Oracle’s CEO Mark Hurd Revealed The Plans For The Net Suite

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "mark hurd"One of the smallest acquisitions that have occurred in recent months is Oracle’s acquisition of Net Suite. These two companies are measuring interesting results in so many fields, and recently Hurd, CEO of Oracle announced what is going to be future plans. First of all, he said that Net Suite has a huge potential that must be used. Now, working as a part of the Oracle, they are going to boost the results and reach the full potential in just a few years.

CEO Mark Hurd specified why this small company has a huge potential. According to him, they have clients which hire up to 800 employees, but they make 95% of the client base! This is just a beginning and in the near future Net Suit will be significantly improved. He also added that the micro-verticals are more advanced here and the special accent will be placed on them.

The future of Net Suite

Hurd is proud to announce that this small but growing company is going to be launched worldwide. Just some of the countries where we will soon be able to see it are the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Mexico. All of these countries have one thing in common. All of them are huge markets, capable of maintaining the constant need for the services and products Oracle has to offer.

Mark will be personally responsible for this success. If we know that he didn’t have any falls and wrong decisions in this life, we can add the fact this is going to be more than just successful investment. The best thing is going to be investments and the budget. Both of them are currently on the increase and we can expect from Oracle a huge funding of Net Suite. All of this thanks to the Hurd.

Tips That Make Your Gold IRA Beneficial For Your Future

Image associéeFrom the last few years, the craze of investment has increased a lot and more and more people are opting for this. This is because it will help in meeting their future requirement and will also protect from unforeseen calamities. These days’ numbers of people are investing in silver, gold and other precious metals. While on the other hand, many individuals are converting their accounts into gold IRA account. This will be beneficial for them after retirement and an added benefit is that they need not to depend on anyone.

There are many benefits of rolling over into gold IRA like you need not to pay any tax, there is no limit of investment and you will get high return rate. focusontheuser.org/gold-ira-rollover is one of the useful links that you can consider while changing your account.

Tips to consider while rollover

Along with benefits, it is also necessary to follow certain tips that will make rollover easy. Following are some tips that will definitely help you in this process:

  • Before investing you should check the price of the gold, as it changes continuously. The price is usually checked with the help of trading value. So, here you can take the help of professionals that have all the necessary information regarding this.
  • For storing gold and other precious metals, it is necessary that you should know the law. According to law, you are required to keep these in storage units or facilities which should be approved by the Federal Reserve.
  • Always select an experienced custodian, they should have proper knowledge regarding this field and should be able to give the necessary details regarding the process.
  • You should know that all the IRAs are multifunctional which means along with gold you can save many other precious metals. They are capable of saving many other plans also.

Try The Newest Mobile Legends Hack For Unlimited Diamonds!

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "mobile legends"Did you hear about the latest and the best Mobile Legends Hack? The guys from www.mobilelegendshackers.com have developed a new weapon that casts unlimited diamonds for an engaging gameplay. The best Android action game has to have a more exciting and easier  way to be played. The hack is available 24/7 so you are not constrained to use it in a certain period of time.


Make your favorite game more inspiring


Mobile games have gained a lot of ground lately and everyone has at least one game on his phone or tablet. The fact is that more and more children are playing on their parents’ phones if they don’t have one from an early age. What would anyone respond if asked for an opinion about a new hack for a game? “Bring it on” would be the answer. Games are not that fun when you are not cheating in some way.


You can have unlimited diamonds if you press one button


It is really easy to do that. The website is offering a step by step guide on how to achieve the unlimited diamonds goal. In the end you have to hit the “Generate” button and you are fully charged to experience your new features. Don’t deny yourself the possibility to engage in a great quest for 1st place. There is no better hack than this one so you should take a leap of faith and try it.


Laws are made to be broken, games are made so hacks and cheats can be developed. This Mobile Legends Hack was already tested on Android mobile devices so it is totally safe. Go ahead and see for yourself how you can play with more diamonds than you could think of.

About 100k Factory Revolution: High Targeted Traffic Generation

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "website traffic"Marketers who are looking to upscale online business should know about the different programs that are designed to get effective results with more traffic. 100k factory is a well known software suit and internet training and marketing program that aims to provide efficient opportunities for the people who are interested to design own online business with the benefits of getting annual returns. This program gives unique opportunities for the users to exploit and learn more about different internet marketing disciplines. Your online business combined with the 100k factory revolution bonus can work wonders. The program also offers comprehensive programs containing training video modules, live training workshops, different PDF manuals with the detailed planning business kit on order to show people that how can they generate 100k per year.

Reasons to join 100k factory revolution

If you are also interested to learn about the setup and monetization then 100k factory program with the use of affiliate marketing, email leads, adsense of the products and services can build your websites with most viral sources. Users can also make use of this program in order to generate good income from different avenues. Through the email program, leads can be generated from the traffic sources. One can also get opportunity to make use of custom e-commerce theme and complementary logo designs with the full access of the internet marketing resources and tools. These mainly include landing pages, email follow ups, advertising templates and product designs.

Understanding about some effective factors

This latest ecommerce model is something great with its predictability as now people can sell products even without purchasing an inventory. 100K factory model is safe and profitable that has ability to effectively provide full scalability. The effective convertibility factor has efficient ability of convert high traffic in order to drive e-commerce sites with the exceptionally instant and high conversions.